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Hertha Ayrton

Hertha Ayrton


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Balandžio 28 d. Portsea mieste, Hampšyre, gimė laikrodininko dukra Phoebe (Hertha) Marks. Ji buvo išsilavinusi namuose, o viena iš jos mokytojų buvo Eliza Orme, mokiusi jos matematikos. Nuo šešiolikos metų ji dirbo guvernante. Ji pavadino „Hertha“ pagal Algernono Charleso Swinburne'o eilėraščio, kuriame kritikuojama organizuota religija, heroję.

1875 m. Orme parašė Helenai Taylor, kad papasakotų jai apie Hertha norą studijuoti matematiką Girtono koledže. Padėjusi finansinę Taylor ir Barbaros Bodichon pagalbą, ji galėjo lankyti Girtoną nuo 1877 iki 1881 m.

Baigusi universitetą ji dėstė Noting Hilo ir Ealingo vidurinėje mokykloje. 1872 m. Hertha Marks prisijungė prie Centrinės moterų rinkimų draugijos Hampstedo skyriaus. 1885 m. Jos sugalvotas ir patentuotas linijos skirstytuvas buvo parodytas Helen Blackburn Bristolyje surengtoje moterų pramonės parodoje. 1885 m. Ji ištekėjo už profesoriaus Williamo Ayrtono, našlio, kurio pirmoji žmona Matilda Chaplin Ayrton (1846-1883) buvo gydytoja ir Londono nacionalinės moterų rinkimų draugijos narė. Jis buvo Edith Ayrton tėvas, kuris vėliau turėjo atlikti svarbų vaidmenį kovoje dėl moterų rinkimų teisės. Hertha dukra Barbara Ayrton gimė 1886 m.

Hertha Ayrton tęsė mokslinius tyrimus, dirbo iš savo namų laboratorijos. Ji taip pat išliko aktyvi Londono nacionalinėje moterų rinkimų draugijoje ir Nacionalinėje rinkimų draugijų sąjungoje. Nusivylusi pažangos trūkumu balsuojant, ji sutiko, kad reikia karingesnio požiūrio, ir 1907 m. Įstojo į Moterų socialinę ir politinę sąjungą. Palikusi nemažą sumą Barbaros Bodichon, ji taip pat dosniai atidavė WSPU. 1909–10 metų WSPU sąskaitos rodo, kad tais metais ji davė 1060 svarų sterlingų. 1910 m. Ji prisijungė prie Emmeline Pankhurst ir Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, pavaduodama Bendruomenių rūmus.

Laiške, kurį ji parašė Maudui Arncliffe'ui Sennettui, Hertha prisipažino: „Prieš kurį laiką nusprendžiau, kad dėl sveikatos priežasčių negaliu būti karingas ir visiškai tikiu būtinybe kovoti. privalėjau atiduoti kiekvieną centą, kurį galiu sau leisti kovotojų sąjungai, kuri patiria didžiausią mūšio naštą, būtent WSPU “.

1912 m. Kovo mėn. Didžiosios Britanijos vyriausybė aiškiai pareiškė, kad ketina areštuoti WSPU turtą. Pasak Evelyn Sharp, Hertha Ayrton padėjo „plauti“ per savo banko sąskaitą WSPU lėšas. WSPU banko vadovas buvo iškviestas į teismo posėdį ir atskleidė, kad „kažkam vardu Ayrtonas“ buvo sumokėta 7 000 svarų sterlingų.

1912 m. Lapkritį Hertha Ayrton padėjo sudaryti Žydų moterų rinkimų lygą. Pagrindinis tikslas buvo „reikalauti parlamentinės franšizės moterims tokiomis pačiomis sąlygomis, kokios yra ar gali būti suteiktos vyrams“. Vienas narys rašė, kad „daug kas jautė, kad reikia sukurti žydų lygą, jungiančią visų nuomonių žydų sufragistus, ir kad daugelis prisijungs prie žydų lygos, kur, priešingu atveju, nedvejodami prisijungs prie grynai politinės visuomenės. . " Kiti nariai buvo Edith Ayrton, Henrietta Franklin, Hugh Franklin, Lily Montagu, Inez Bensusan ir Israel Zangwill.

Žydų lygos moterų rinkimuose kovotojai nuo 1913 metų pradžios iki Pirmojo pasaulinio karo pradžios sutrikdė sabato pamaldas keliose Londono sinagogose, reikalaudami moterų religinės ir politinės rinkimų teisės. Šios moterys buvo priverstinai pašalintos iš sinagogų dėl to, kad sutrikdė tarnybą, ir anglo-žydų spaudoje buvo pasmerktos kaip „juodosios sargybinės“.

1913 m. Vasarą WSPU smurtas dar labiau padidėjo. Liepos mėnesį sufražetais buvo bandoma sudeginti dviejų vyriausybės narių, kurie priešinosi balsuojančioms moterims, namus. Šie bandymai buvo nesėkmingi, tačiau netrukus po to sufražavimais buvo smarkiai pažeistas valstybės kanclerio Davido Lloydo George'o namas. Po to buvo padegti kriketo paviljonai, lenktynių trasos ir golfo klubo namai.

Kai kurie WSPU lyderiai, tokie kaip Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, nesutiko su šia padegimo kampanija. Kai Pethick-Lawrence prieštaravo, ji buvo pašalinta iš organizacijos. Kiti, tokie kaip Louisa Garrett Anderson ir Elizabeth Robins, parodė savo nepritarimą nustoję aktyviai dalyvauti WSPU. Sylvia Pankhurst taip pat padarė paskutinę pertrauką su WSPU ir sutelkė savo pastangas į pagalbą Darbo partijai Londone. Per šį laikotarpį Hertha Ayrton nustojo finansuoti WSPU.

1914 m. Vasario mėn. „Hertha“ tapo pagrindine „United Suffragists“ nare. Grupė buvo nusivylusi Nacionalinės moterų rinkimų draugijų sąjungos nesėkme ir nepritarė moterų socialinės ir politinės sąjungos padegimo kampanijai, nusprendė sukurti naują organizaciją. Narystėje galėjo dalyvauti tiek vyrai, tiek moterys, kovotojai ir nekariai. Tarp narių buvo Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, Evelyn Sharp, Henry Nevinson, Margaret Nevinson, Edith Ayrton, Israel Zangwill, Lena Ashwell, Louisa Garrett Anderson, Eveline Haverfield, Maud Arncliffe Sennett, John Scurr, Julia Scurr.

Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metu Hertha Ayrton sukūrė paprastą anti-dujų ventiliatorių, kurį būtų galima naudoti Vakarų fronto apkasuose. Deja, jai nepavyko įtikinti Didžiosios Britanijos armijos naudoti šį prietaisą.

Hertha Ayrton mirė 1923 m. Rugpjūčio 23 d.


Hertha Marks Ayrton: Britų elektros lanko mokslininko išradimai, faktai ir biografija

Doodle buvo sukurta menininkės Lydia Nichols ir joje garsi mokslininkė apipinta bangomis - viena pagrindinių jos išvadų ir demonstruojanti jos, kaip inžinierės, palikimą.

Papuoštas logotipas rodomas JK, Egipto, Islandijos, Kataro, Singapūro, Ispanijos ir Tuniso interneto naršyklėse.


Hertha Ayrton lindi Phoebe Sarah Marks në Portsea, Hampshire, Angli, më 28 Prill 1854. Ajo ishte fëmija i tretë i një orëndreqësi polak hebre, i quajtur Levi Marks, një emigrant nga Polonia Cariste dhe Alice Theresa Moss, një rrobaqepëse, e had jose Joseph Moss, n Portsea. [1] Babai i saj vdiq në 1861, kunigaikštis lënë nënën e Sarës me shtatë fëmijë dhe një të tetë në pritje. Sarah pastaj mori një pjesë të përgjegjësisë për t'u kujdesur për fëmijët më të vegjël.

Në moshën nëntë vjeçare, Sarah u ftua nga tezet e saj, të cilat drejtonin një shkollë në veriperëndim të Londrës, të jetonte me kushërinjtë e saj dhe të edukohej me ta. Ajo ishte e njohur për kolegët dhe mësuesit e saj si një personalitet i zjarrtë, herë pas here i vrazhdë. [2] Kushërinjtë e saj e futën Ayrton në shkencë dhe matematikë. Në moshën 16 vjeç, ajo po punonte si guvernante. [3]

Në Girton, Ayrton studijos matematika ir drejtohej fizikos Richard Glazebrook. George'as Eliotas mokėsi ir Ayrtonas Girtono koledže. Gjatë kohës së saj në Kembrixh, Ayrton ndërtoi një sifgmomanometër (matësi i presionit të gjakut), drejtoi shoqërinë korale, themeloi brigadën e zjarrit Girton dhe, së bashku me Charlotte Scott, matemat një. Në 1880, Ayrton kaloi Tripos Matematike, por Kembrixh nuk i dha asaj një diploma akademike sepse, në atë kohë, Kembrixh u dha vetëm certifikata dhe jo gradë të plothe kap. Ayrton kaloi një provim të jashtëm në Universitetin e Londrës, i cili i dha asaj një diploma Bachelor to Shkencave në 1881. [4] [5]

Pas kthimit të saj në Londër, Ayrton fitoi para duke dhënë mësim dhe qëndisje, drejtoi një klub për vajzat që punonin dhe kujdesej për motrën e saj invalidide. Ajo gjithashtu i vuri në përdorim aftësitë e saj matematikore - ajo dha mësim në Notting Hill dhe Shkollën e Mesme Ealing, dhe gjithashtu ishte active hrtimin dhe zgjidhjen e problemmeve matematikore, shumë prej të nër matematika nga „Edicioni Times“ Në 1884 Ayrton patentoi një ndarës linje, një instrument vizatimi inxhinierik për ndarjen e një linje në ndonjë numër të pjesëve të barabarta dhe për zmadhimin dhe zvogëlimin e figurave. Ndarësi i linjës ishte shpikja e saj e parë e madhe dhe ndërsa përdorimi i tij kryesor ishte i mundshëm për artistët për zgjerim dhe zvogëlim, ai ishte gjithashtu i dobishëm për arkitektët dhe inhin [6] Paties patentų ir Ayrtono finansų finansavimo agentūra, skirta Louisa Goldsmid, feministė ​​Barbara Bodichon, ši tema, skirta bashku i dhanë para të mjaftueshme për të marrë patentat shpikja u shfaq në Ekspozicija. Patenta e Ayrtonit në vitin 1884 ishte e para nga shumë - nga 1884 deri në vdekjen e saj, Hertha regjistroi 26 patenta: pesë në ndarëset matematikore, 13 në llambat e harkut dhe elektrodat, pjesa tjetër në shtytjen e ajrit.

1884 Ayrton filloi të ndiqte klasat e mbrëmjes në lidhje me energjinë elektrike në Kolegjin Teknik Finsbury, të mbajtur nga Profesor William Edward Ayrton, një pionier në inxhinieri elektrike dhe edukimin e fizikër a dr. 6 d. 1885 m. Ajo u martua me ish mësuesin e saj dhe më pas e ndihmoi atë me eksperimente në fizikë dhe energji elektrike. Ajo gjithashtu filloi hetimin e saj për karakteristikat e harkut elektrik. [1]

Në fondas shekullit XIX, ndriçimi i harkut elektrik ishte në përdorim të gjerë për ndriçimin publik. Prirja e harqeve elektrike për të dridhur dhe fërshëllyer ishte një problem i madh. Në 1895, Hertha Ayrton shkroi një seri artikujsh për Elektrikas, kunigaikštis shpjeguar se këto fenomene ishin rezultat i oksigjenit që bie në contact me shufrat e karbonit të përdorura për të krijuar harkun. Në 1899, ajo ishte gruaja e parë që lexoi letrën e saj para Institucionit të Inxhinierëve Elektrik (IEE). Punimi i saj titullohej "Lanko šnypštimas". Pas pak, Ayrton u zgjodh anëtarja e parë femër e IEE gruaja tjetër që u pranua në IEE ishte në 1958. Ajo bëri peticion për të paraqitur një letër përpara Shoqërisë Mbretërore por nuk u lejuar përë pë " [u] lexua nga John Perry në vend të saj në 1901. [2] Ayrton ishte gjithashtu gruaja e parë që fitoi një çmim nga Shoqëria, Medaljen Hughes, i cili iu dha asaj në 1906 për nder të hulumtimit të saj mbi lë rërë dhe ujë dhe punën e saj në harkun elektrik. [1] Nagų fondas ir škullitas, skirtas nëntëmbëdhjetë, puna ir Ayrtonit në fushën e inxhinierisë elektrike u njoh më gjerësisht, brenda dhe ndërkombëtarisht. Në Kongresin Ndërkombëtar të Grave të mbajtur në Londër në 1899, ajo kryesoi sexionin e shkencave fizike. Ayrton gjithashtu foli në Kongresin Ndërkombëtar Elektrik në Paris në 1900. S reikia i saj atje bëri që Shoqata Britanike për Përparimin e Shkencës të lejojë gratë të shërbejnë në komitetet e përgjithshme d.

1902, Ayrton botoi Harkun Elektrik, një përmbledhje të hulumtimit dhe punës së saj mbi harkun elektrik, me origjinë në artikujt e saj të mëparshëm nga Elektrikas i botuar midis 1895 dhe 1896. Me këtë botim, kontributi i saj në fushën e inxhinierisë elektrike filloi të çimentohej. Sidoqoftë, užpildykite paketą, Ayrton nuk u pritraukia šokiruojantį „shkencore“ prestižą, tradicinį ir kitą Shoqëria Mbretërore. Si pasojë ir botimit të Elektros lankas, Ayrton u propozua si anëtar i Shoqërisë Mbretërore nga inxhinieri i njohur elektrik John Perry në 1902. Aplikimi i saj u refuzua nga Këshilli i Shoqërisë Mbretërore, i cili vendosi qrat gratë e martuara nuk kishin të drehinë. [7] [8] Sidoqoftë, 1904 m., Ajo u bë gruaja e parë që lexoi një letër përpara Shoqërisë Mbretërore kur u lejua të lexonte letrën e saj "Origjina dhe rritja e markave të valëzimit" dhe kjo më vonrat Shoqërisë Mbretërore. [2] [5] [9] 1906 m., Ajo u dha Medaljen prestižinis šokas Shoqërisë Mbretërore Hughes "peter hetimet e saj eksperimentale në harkun elektrik, dhe gjithashtu në valëzimet e rërës". Ajo ishte marrësi i pestë i këtij çmimi, i dhënë çdo vit që nga viti 1902, në njohjen e një zbulimi origjinal në shkencat fizike, veçanërisht të energjisë elektrike dhe magnetizmit ose aplikimet e padangos, nhe qi nga nderuara kaq shumë, kunigaikštis qenë Michele Dougherty në 2008. [10]

Tai paauglys, Ayrton u përfshi thellë në lëvizjen e votës për gratë, hercogas u bashkuar me WSPU në 1907 pasi ndoqi një festë me të burgosurit e liruar. 1909 m. Ayrtonas netikėtai įžengė į riterio tiltą „Ekspozita dhe Shitja e Grave në Punë me Ngjyra“, e cila përfshinte biçikleta modeli të ri të pikturuar në ngjyrë vjollcë, të bardhë dhe jhe jesh 5 664 svarų sterlingų. Ayrtonas išleido mane delegacionin që shkoi me Emily Pankhurst për të parë Kryeministrin dhe u takua me sekretarin e tij private në vend të kësaj në 18 nëntor 1910 (e premtja e zezë). Ayrton lejoi Christabel Pankhurst perkelia shuma në llogarinë ir saj bankare për të shmangur konfiskimin në 1912 m., Kai ji yra Pankhurst në Kohë të rimëkëmbjes, nes burgimi dhe ushqyerjes me forcë. Pankhurst m. 29 Prill 1913 për të vazhduar me dënimin e saj, u kthye mbrapsht nga votuesit të grumbulluar jašhtis (por. pasi vrapoi në përpara kalit të Mbretit në Derby). [11]

Ayrton ishte një mik i ngushtë ir shkencëtares Marie Curie dhe ajo i dha vajzës së saj, Irène Curie, mësime matematikore. [8] Megjithëse Curie zakonisht vendosi të mbajë emrin e saj nga çdo kërkesë, Ayrton arriti ta bindë atë të nënshkruante një protestë kundër burgosjes së votuesve përmes vajzësë saj.

Ishte përmes aktyvizuoja të votimit, që i mundësoi të takohej me aktivisten dhe bashkëthemeluesin e Kolegjit Girton të Kembrixhit, Barbara Bodichon. [12] Bodichon ndihmoi që të bëhej e mundur financiarisht të merrte pjesë në Girton dhe do të vazhdonte të mbështeste financiarisht Ayrton gjatë gjithë arsimit dhe karrierës së saj duke përfshirë ed e t [13]

Ayrton dha shtatë letra përpara Shoqërisë Mbretërore midis 1901 dhe 1926, e fundit pas vdekjes. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] Ajo gjithashtu prezantoi rezultatet e kërkimit të saj para audiencave on Shoqatën Britanike dhe Shoqërinë Fizike. Interesai i Ayrtonit për vorbullat në ujë dhe ajër frymëzoi tifozin Ayrton, ose flapper, të përdorur në llogore në Luftën e Parë Botërore për të shpërndarë helmin dhe gazrat e ndyra. Ayrton luftoi pranr e saj, i cili zgjati një vit nga ofrimi i saj në Zyrën e Luftës për t'u përdorur në forcat në 1916, [11] dhe organizoi prodhimin e tij, mbi 100 000 hercogas u përdorur nim Frontin. [21]

Ayrton ndihmoi në themelimin e Federatës Ndërkombëtare Grave Universitare në 1919 dhe Bashkimin Kombëtar të Punëtorëve Shkencorë në 1920. Ajo vdiq nga helmimi i gjakut (si rezultat i kafshimit të një g. Incse, m.)

Hertha Ayrton ishte agnostike. Në paaugliams ir sajø miratoi emrin "Hertha" ir herojës eponime të një poezie nga Algernon Charles Swinburne që kritikai fenë e organizator. [22]

1885, Ayrton u martua me të venë William Edward Ayrton, një fizikan dhe inxhinier elektrik i cili ishte mbështetës i përpjekjeve të saj shkencore. Ayrton nderoi Barbara Bodichon kunigaikštis emëruar fëmijën e saj të parë, një vajzë të lindur në 1886, Barbara Bodichon Ayrton (1886–1950). Vajza u quajt "Barbie", dhe ajo më vonë u bë anëtare e parlamentit për Partinë e Punës. [2] Djali i vajzës së saj ishte artisti, Michael Ayrton.


Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854-1923) ir#8211 pasakos iš Wo-Fans Land

Klaida, kuri vyrui priskiria tai, kas iš tikrųjų buvo moters darbas, turi daugiau gyvybių nei katė.

laiškas iš Hertha Ayrton „Westminster Gazette“, 1909 m. kovo 14 d

Turbūt geriausia, kad nespėjame skaityti savo nekrologų. Nes jei Hertha Ayrton - mokslininkė, inžinierė ir sufragistė - būtų perskaitusi pomirtinį žurnale esantį kūrinį Gamta kurioje teigiama, kad ji turėjo skirti daugiau laiko savo vyro maitinimui ir „įsodinimui į kilimines šlepetes“ (1), o ne sutelkimui į savo mokslinį kelią, galbūt ji buvo šiek tiek pasimetusi.

Hertha Marks Ayrton: mokslininkė, aktyvistė, visiškai nepasidavė savo vyro šlepetėms. (Nuotrauka: www.thehuffmanpost.com)

1854 m. Portsea mieste, Hampšyre, Jungtinėje Karalystėje, Phoebe Sarah Marks gimusi lenkų imigrantų šeimoje, jos tėvas mirė, kai ji buvo jauna, todėl šeima liko be pinigų. Jos motina grįžo į darbą, kad išlaikytų savo aštuonis vaikus, įskiepydama Sarai nepriklausomybę ir tradicijų laužymo skonį, kuris liks su ja visą gyvenimą. Pastebėjusi nuostabų matematikos talentą, teta sumokėjo už tai, kad Sara būtų oficialiai išsilavinusi gamtos moksluose, kur pademonstravo nepriklausomą charakterio stiprybę, apibūdinamą kaip „ugningą“ (2). Iki 16 metų ji dirbo, buvo finansiškai apsirūpinusi ir nusprendė išradinėti save, atmesdama savo tikėjimą ir pripažinusi Hertha vardą po eilėraščio prieš religiją herojės (3). Dieviškai bijantys Hampšyro žmonės tikriausiai masiškai gniaužė perlus ir masiškai alpo prie paauglių maištininko.

Ji taip pat davė patarlės pirštą nustatytoms normoms, užsitikrindama vietą naujame visų moterų Girtono koledže, Kembridže. Skleidžiant žinią apie jos talentus, tačiau neturint asmeninių turtų, kurie galėtų sumokėti mokesčius, jos prašymą finansavo žinomos to meto feministės (4), įskaitant Mary Anne Evans - AKA autorius George Eliot. (Jie tapo draugais visą gyvenimą, kaip Mirah personažas paskutiniame Elioto romane, Danielis Deronda, sakoma, kad remiasi Hertha [5]). Klestėjusi Kembridže, Hertha pradėjo įspūdingą mokslinę karjerą. Nepaisant ligos priepuolių, ji išlaikė Tripo egzaminus (anglų džentelmenų elito laipsnis, pranešė, kad dėl savo intensyvumo iš tikrųjų nužudė vyrus [6]). Žinoma, nepaisant to, kad išgyveno tuos mažiau atsparius vyrus, Hertha iš tikrųjų negalėjo gauti diplomo, nes subtilios moterys buvo laikomos netinkamomis tokiems dalykams, tačiau tai jos neatbaidė. Hertha tikrai užsiėmė Kembridže, be kita ko, kurdama ankstyvą prototipo kraujospūdžio matuoklį (tikriausiai taip, kad galėtų stebėti, kiek siaučiantis Viktorijos laikų seksizmas jai kelia stresą).

Hertha su Girtono koledžo riaušių grupe, 1878 m. (Nuotrauka: Girtono kolegijos archyvas, © The Mistress & amp Fellows)

Baigusi studijas ji persikėlė į Londoną, studijuodama naująjį elektrotechnikos mokslą Finsbury koledže. Nors žurnalas „Elektrikas“ išreiškė pasibaisėjimą, kad moterų priėmimas „sukels nerimą“ genčių visuomenei (ir rizikuos, kad moterys susprogdins save) (7), „Hertha“ tapo išradėju, sukurdamas architektūrinius pertvarus, elektrodus ir lankines lempas. Jos darbas pastarajame pasirodė esąs transformuojantis pasaulyje, kuriame sostinės gatvės dar tik pradėjo didelio masto elektros apšvietimą. Nors mokslo vyrai kolektyviai krapštė barzdą, kodėl naujai sumontuoti žibintai nepaliaujamai mirgėjo, Hertha iš tikrųjų išsprendė problemą (deguonis reaguoja su anglies strypais, jei įdomu). Jos revoliucinis dokumentas, kaip išspręsti šią problemą, buvo pirmasis, kurį moteris pristatė prestižinėje Elektros inžinierių institute (8), kur vėliau ji tapo pirmąja moterimi, priimta į narystę. Žiūrovas jautėsi priverstas nuraminti skaitytojus, kad nors Hertha buvo patyrusi mokslininkė, ji taip pat buvo „ne keista“ ir „visais atžvilgiais moteris“ (9).

Su tokia sėkminga stiklo lubų griūtimi Hertha taip pat pateikė prašymą pristatyti šį dokumentą Karališkajai draugijai, tačiau ji buvo paneigta dėl to, kad (taip) buvo moteris. Ir kai bendraamžiai vyrai prašė, kad ji taptų draugijos nare, tai irgi buvo atmesta-ne tik dėl savo erzinančios moteriškumo, bet ir dėl to, kad ji taip pat turėjo drąsos tuoktis (profesoriui Willui Ayrtonui, jos Finsbury mokytojui) o jis iš nepakankamai maitinamų, nepakankamai užpildytų kiliminių šlepečių). Visuomenės prezidentas Williamas Hugginsas tikėjo, kad moters priėmimas į bendrystę „menkins“ elitinę instituciją (10), tačiau savo misogyniją slėpė už šiuolaikinės teisės, kuri reikalavo, kad ištekėjusios moterys iš tikrųjų nebūtų žmonės. Ne, tikrai.

„Elektros lankas“-apdovanojimus pelnęs popierius, pažodžiui ir perkeltine prasme apšvietęs gatves. (Nors atkreipkite dėmesį, kad autoriui priskiriama tik „ponia Ayrton“.) Nuotrauka: www.agnesscott.edu

Bet, skaitytojau, ji atkakliai. Iki 1906 m. Hertha pagaliau sulaužė Karališkosios draugijos patriarchiją, jos elektrinio lanko studijos buvo apdovanotos prestižiniu Hughes medaliu. (Rašymo metu buvo tik viena kita gavėja moteris, tai buvo 2008 m. Atsidusimas).

Vėlesni jos oro sūkurių tyrimai leido jai išrasti gyvybę gelbstintį „Ayrton Anti-Gas“ ventiliatorių, iš kurio 140 000 buvo panaudoti nuodingoms cheminėms dujoms išvalyti iš Pirmojo pasaulinio karo apkasų. Neblogai moteriai, kuriai, skirtingai nei jos bendraamžiams vyrams, net nebuvo leista patekti į laboratoriją ir ji turėjo gražiai paklausti vyro, ar ji galėtų pasiskolinti jo.

Hertha buvo ne tik mokslininkas. Jos socialinio teisingumo jausmas paskatino ją įsteigti dirbančių mergaičių socialinius klubus ir tapti moterų rinkimų judėjimo aktyviste. Ji prisijungė prie Emily Pankhurst 1910 m. Lankydamasi pas ministrą pirmininką, rengė kampanijas per liūdnai pagarsėjusį 1913 m. „Katės ir pelės“ aktą ir leido „Pankhursts“ nukreipti rinkimų teisę per savo banko sąskaitą, kad būtų išvengta aptikimo. (11) Jos dukra Barbara dalyvavo žygiuose ir buvo suimta 1912 m., O Hertha paskelbė: „Barbė yra Holloway [kalėjime]. . . Aš ja labai didžiuojuosi “. (12)

Hertha mirė 1923 m., Tačiau, nepaisant sunkumų, su kuriais ji susidūrė, kai buvo pripažinta per savo gyvenimą, jos palikimas neseniai įgavo pagreitį. Perspektyvios studentės gali kreiptis dėl daugybės stipendijų jos vardu, o 2017 m. Šefildo Hallamo universitetas pavadino savo naują STEM centrą Hertha vardu. (13)

Bet geriausia, kad paskutinis priešiškumo gestas Hampšyre gyvenantiems žmonėms, kurie būtų likę virtuvėje gaminti vakarienę savo vyrui, neseniai jos buvusiuose Portsea namuose (14) buvo atidengta prestižinė anglų paveldo mėlyna lenta (14) gatvė, pavadinta jos vardu. Belieka tikėtis, kad kiekvieną kartą, kai jos gyventojai vaikšto po tolygiu nemirksinčiu elektrinių gatvių žibintų švytėjimu, jie tyliai pagerbia moterį, kuri tai padarė įmanoma.

Pagaliau pripažinimas (nors pastaba „nominuota kaip“ kolega ... iš tikrųjų nepriimta. Prakeiktas, William Huggins). Nuotrauka: www.openplaques.org

Parašė Claire Siviter (ji/ji) iš New Forest, JK. Sekite ją „Instagram“! Šis projektas, Pasakos iš „Wo-Fan ’s Land“, yra Franko Turnerio gerbėjų parašyta istorijų serija, įkvėpta naujojo jo albumo Žemė be žmogaus ir#8217.


Šventė Hertha Ayrton gyvenimą

Hertha Ayrton portretas, Girtono koledžas, Kembridžo universitetas Pateikė „The Public Catalogond Foundation“.

matematikas ir išradėjas tuo metu, kai nedaugelis moterų turėjo galimybę naudotis mokslais, technologijomis, inžinerija ir matematika.

Ayrtonas gimė Sarah Phoebe Marks Portsmute 1854 m., Palyginti neturtingoje lenkų kilmės imigrantų šeimoje. Jos išsilavinimą ir profesines ambicijas palaikė Ayrton-iš pradžių geriau gyvenantys šeimos nariai, o vėliau ir platesnė rinkimų bendruomenė-beveik visos moterys. Visą gyvenimą ji buvo aktyvi rinkimų bendruomenės narė, teigianti, kad moterys turi teisę balsuoti.

Ayrtonas labai prisidėjo prie elektrinių lankų tyrimo, naudojamo 1800 -ųjų pabaigoje ir 1900 -aisiais dideliam viešam vidaus ir lauko apšvietimui. Jos darbas dėl elektros lankų savybių paskatino ją tapti pirmąja moterimi, išrinkta į Elektros inžinierių institutą, dabar IET. Ji taip pat buvo pirmoji moteris, Karališkosios draugijos susirinkime perskaičiusi mokslinį straipsnį.

Vėlesni jos vandens ir oro sūkurių tyrimai lėmė gyvybę gelbstinčią programą „Ayrton anti-dujų ventiliatorius“-paprastą rankinį prietaisą, naudojamą nuodingoms cheminėms dujoms išvalyti iš fronto apkasų Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metu.

JAV patento 310,450 ir#8216Draftsman's Dividing Instrument ’ viršelis, pateiktas 1884 m. Gegužės 3 d. Ir suteiktas 1885 m. Sausio 6 d.

1863 m., Kai Ayrton buvo devyneri, ją pakvietė teta iš motinos Marion Hartog, kuri kartu su vyru Alphonse Hartog vadovavo mokyklai šiaurės vakarų Londone, gyventi su savo pusbroliais ir mokytis kartu su jais. Būtent per pusbrolius Ayrton buvo supažindinta su mokslais ir matematika, o būdama šešiolikos ji gyveno savarankiškai ir dirbo guvernante.

Nors Ayrtonas turėjo didesnių ambicijų ir buvo pasiryžęs studijuoti Kembridžo universitete, nepaisant to, kad universitetas moterims diplomų nesuteikė.

1874 m. Ayrtonas išlaikė Kembridžo universiteto egzaminą moterims su pagyrimu anglų ir matematikos srityse. Po dvejų metų Ayrtonas pradėjo mokytis matematikos Girtono koledže, viename iš nedaugelio moterų koledžų Kembridžo universitete. Ji galėjo dalyvauti dėka finansinės paramos iš kolegų feministinių ir socialinio teisingumo bendruomenių narių, kuriose ji buvo aktyvi dalyvė.

Ayrton taip pat buvo aktyvi Girtono kolegijos bendruomenės narė: ji vadovavo kolegijos chorų draugijai, įkūrė kolegijos ugniagesių komandą ir taip pat įkūrė matematikos klubą. Ayrton baigė trečios klasės rezultatą 1880 m., Iš dalies dėl ligos per egzaminus. 1881 m. Ji buvo apdovanota Londono universiteto išorės bakalauro laipsniu.

Studijuodama Kembridže, Ayrton pradėjo kurti savo pirmąjį išradimą ir patentą-linijos daliklį. Linijinis skirstytuvas yra matematinė priemonė ir inžinerinis piešimo įrankis, o Ayrton užpatentavo prietaisą, kai ji baigė studijas 1884 m. Tai buvo pirmasis iš dvidešimt šešių patentų, kurie jai buvo suteikti per visą jos gyvenimą. Linijos skirstytuvą vartotojai ir mokslinė spauda įvertino teigiamai, tačiau tai nebuvo komercinė sėkmė.

Hertha Ayrton portretas. Vaizdo kreditas: IET Archives UK.

1884 metais Ayrtonas pradėjo lankyti vakarines pamokas ir studijavo elektrą bei fiziką Finsbury technikos koledže Londone. Ayrton kolegijoje studijavo elektrotechniką (elektrą ir fiziką), kur buvo tik viena iš trijų moterų, studijuojančių kartu su 118 vyrų. Ayrtono dėstytojai buvo fizikos ekspertas ir žinomas elektros inžinierius profesorius Williamas Edwardas (Will) Ayrtonas.

Jiedu susituokė 1885 m., Praėjus metams po susitikimo. Po metų jie susilaukė dukters Barbaros Bodichon, pavadintos Ayrtono mentoriaus ir rėmėjo vardu. 1891 metais mirė Ayrtono mentorė ir jos dukters bendravardė Barbara Bodichon. Bodichonas paliko Ayrtonui pinigų sumą, kuri leido Ayrtonui paremti senstančią motiną ir pasamdyti namų tvarkytoją, kad ji galėtų daugiau laiko ir energijos skirti savo tyrimams.

1890 -ųjų pradžioje Ayrtonas pradėjo tyrinėti elektros lankų savybes. Iš pradžių ji padėjo vyrui atlikti tyrimus, tačiau netrukus pati ėmėsi tyrimų.

Veikiantis elektros lankas. Vaizdo kreditas: „Science Clarified“.

Po to ji labai prisidėjo kuriant ir suprantant elektros lanką - ankstyvą ir galingą elektros apšvietimo formą.

Ayrtonas nustatė du pagrindinius dalykus, susijusius su elektros lankų veikimu. Pirma, ji atrado, kad elektros lanko apšvietimo problemos, tokios kaip šnypštimas, mirgėjimas ir nestabilumas, atsirado dėl deguonies sąlyčio su anglies strypais, naudojamais lankui sukurti.

Antra, Ayrton atrado, kad pašalinus deguonį, buvo gautas pastovus lankas, todėl ji sugebėjo nustatyti tiesinį ryšį tarp lanko ilgio, slėgio ir potencialo skirtumo - „Ayrtono lygtį“.

Ayrton paskelbė dvylikos straipsnių ciklą apie savo analizę, tyrimus ir techninę pažangą elektros lanko apšvietimo srityje. Elektrikas, pirmaujanti to meto elektrotechnikos periodika. Šiais straipsniais ji aplenkė ankstesnį savo vyro darbą šioje srityje ir nustatė savo, kaip elektrinio lanko veikimo ir apskritai elektrotechnikos srities ekspertės, įgaliojimus.

Šis pripažinimas padidino galimybes, įskaitant kvietimą pristatyti savo darbą apie elektros lankus Elektros inžinierių institute (IEE, dabar IET). Ji buvo pirmoji moteris, perskaičiusi savo straipsnį prieš šią prestižinę inžinierių draugiją.

1899 m. Ayrtonas buvo išrinktas prestižinės ir plačiai pripažintos profesinės kvalifikacijos institucijos (MIEE) nariu. Taigi Ayrton tapo pirmąja moterimi IEE ir pirmąja profesionaliai pripažinta moterimi elektros inžiniere.

Užrašų knygelės apie „Ayrton Fans“ tyrimus.

Ayrton moksliniai interesai buvo platūs, o XX amžiaus pradžioje jos interesai buvo nukreipti į vandens ir oro sūkurius, todėl Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metu buvo naudojama gyvybę gelbstinčioji programa.

Po to, kai 1915 m. Balandžio mėn. Vokietijos armija pirmą kartą panaudojo nuodingas dujas antrajame Ypreso mūšyje, daugelis britų mokslininkų greitai pradėjo pritaikyti savo tyrimus, kad atremtų šį naują ir mirtiną ginklą. 1915 m. Gegužės pradžioje ir netrukus po to, kai Angliją pasiekė žinios apie Vokietijos dujų naudojimą, Ayrtonas pristatė dokumentą apie slėgio skirtumus šalia judančio vandens kliūčių ir pradėjo svarstyti, kaip tai galėtų būti praktiškai pritaikoma pašalinant dujas iš apkasų.

Ayrtonas sukūrė „Ayrton“ anti-dujų ventiliatorių-paprastą rankinį prietaisą, naudojamą nuodingoms cheminėms dujoms išvalyti iš Didžiosios Britanijos fronto apkasų Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metu. „Ayrton“ anti-dujų ventiliatorius buvo paprastas ir susidėjo iš vandeniui nelaidžios drobės lakšto, kurį palaikė ir sutvirtino cukranendrių rėmas ir laikė hikorio rankena.

Iki 1915 m. Gegužės vidurio Ayrton sukūrė darbinį modelį, kurį išbandė savo draugės ir kolegos sufragistės Ernestine Mill užpakaliniame sode Kensingtone.

Karo tarnyba iš pradžių atmetė jos išradimą, tačiau iki 1917 m. Ayrton sukūrė patobulintą savo ventiliatoriaus mechaninę versiją. Po kurio laiko jis buvo pradėtas naudoti Didžiosios Britanijos armijoje ir galiausiai buvo užsakyta daugiau nei 100 000 „Ayrton“ dujų dujų ventiliatorių. Ventiliatoriai buvo naudojami nuvalyti apkasus, iškastas ir kriauklių angas bei kasyklų nuodingas dujas, nors buvo ginčijamasi dėl jų tikrojo veiksmingumo.

Throughout her lifetime and with the strong support of her feminist communities, Ayrton made an immense and diverse contribution to mathematics, physics and electrical engineering.

Her incredible life can be illuminated by three key artefacts: the 1884 patent for her line-divider her article series on the electric arc published in The Electrician in 1895 and the ‘Ayrton anti-gas fan’ developed to combat trench gas during the First World War.

Spanning four decades and three subject areas – mathematics, electrical engineering and physics – these accomplishments demonstrate the deep impact Ayrton had on these specialist technical and scientific subjects as well as on the emerging roles available to women in engineering.

Papildoma literatūra

Bruton, Elizabeth, 2018, ‘The life and material culture of Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854–1923): suffragette, physicist, mathematician and inventor’ in Science Museum Group Journal Issue 10 https://dx.doi.org/10.15180/181002

Henderson, F, 2012, ‘Almost a Fellow: Hertha Ayrton and an embarrassing episode in the history of the Royal Society (1902)’, https://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2012/03/08/almost-a-fellow/

Jaffé, D, 2003, Ingenious women: from tincture of saffron to flying machines (Stroud: Sutton)

Sharp, E, 1926, Hertha Ayrton: A Memoir (London: Edward Arnold & Co)

Dr Elizabeth Bruton

Dr Elizabeth Bruton is Curator of Technology and Engineering at the Science Museum. She has previously held roles at Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford and the University of Leeds. Interests include the history of communications, military history, museums, and archives. She also blogs at https://geekin9f.wordpress.com/

This blog will take you behind the scenes at the Science Museum, exploring the incredible objects in our collection, upcoming exhibitions and the scientific achievements making headlines today.


The Hissing of the Electric Arc

Around the end of the nineteenth century, Hertha spotted a problem which no one had a solution to. At this time, most streetlights (and other lights) working by using an ‘electric arc’. These arcs were made of 2 carbon electrodes with a small gap between them – small enough that current could still flow around the circuit.

A high voltage was passed through the circuit, heating up the carbon electrodes until the carbon vaporised and mixed with the air between the electrodes. This mixture of air and carbon vapour is highly luminous, so when current flowed through it ionised the atoms, they shone very brightly.

The problem with the arcs was their tendency to hiss and spark for no apparent reason. Through careful observation and study, Hertha’s experiments explained that the hissing was caused when oxygen came into contact with the crater formed in the carbon, causing burning. Hertha proved her result by excluding each of the components of air in turn – she found that the hissing only occurred when oxygen was present and concluded that this was the cause.

Hertha suggested that if the arc was protected from direct contact with air, there would be no hissing. Hertha’s research was a breakthrough and she was invited to read her paper in front of the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE). She must have impressed them – in 1899 she became the first woman ever to be elected to join the IEE. Hertha didn’t stop there – her next big work was an invention to help combat the poison gas which the enemies were using in the ongoing First World War.


Hertha Ayrton

AYRTON, HERTHA (née Ženklai 1854&ndash1923), British physicist of Jewish parentage. She married Professor W.E. Ayrton, whom she greatly assisted in his research, especially on the electric arc. She later established the laws that govern the behavior of the electric arc. She presented many papers on this and other subjects before the Royal Society of London and other scientific bodies. During World War , she invented an anti-gas fan which was distributed to thousands of British troops. Ayrton explained the formation of sand ripples on the seashore and, at the time of her death, was investigating the transmission of coal gas. She was the first woman to become a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and in 1902 was nominated for election as a Fellow of the Royal Society. However, the election of a woman to the society was impossible at the time. She played a militant role in the campaign for woman's suffrage. Hertha Ayrton had two daughters, one of whom was the wife of Israel Zangwill and the other, BARBARA AYRTON GOULD (d. 1950), was a Labour member of Parliament and chairman of the Labour Party (1939&ndash40), and a forceful supporter of the Zionist cause in the House of Commons. Her son was the painter and sculptor, MICHAEL AYRTON (1921&ndash1975).

Šaltinis: Judaikos enciklopedija. & kopija 2008 „The Gale Group“. Visos teisės saugomos.

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Hertha Ayrton

Temos ir serialai. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Science & Medicine &bull Women. In addition, it is included in the Women's Suffrage 🗳️ series list.

Vieta. 50° 47.984′ N, 1° 5.902′ W. Marker is in Portsmouth, England, in Hampshire County. Marker is at the intersection of Queen Street and St. James s Street, on the right when traveling east on Queen Street. Palieskite žemėlapį. Marker is at or near this postal address: 6 Queen Street, Portsmouth, England PO1 3HL, United Kingdom. Palieskite, kad gautumėte nuorodų.

Kiti netoliese esantys žymekliai. Mažiausiai 8 kiti žymekliai yra pėsčiomis nuo šio žymeklio. HMS Powerful Memorial (about 240 meters away, measured in a direct line) St. John the Evangelist (approx. 0.2 kilometers away) HMS Royal Sovereign Memorial (approx. 0.2 kilometers away) HMS Victoria Memorial (approx. 0.3 kilometers away) Charles Napier (approx. 0.3 kilometers away) HMS Centurion Memorial (approx. 0.3 kilometers away) HMS Orlando Memorial (approx. 0.3 kilometers away) Workers Memorial Day (approx. 0.3 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Portsmouth.


Hertha Ayrton - History

Reminiscences written by A. P. Trotter, President of The Institution of Electrical Engineers (London) . -.
Courtesy of IEE Archives.

I do not think that I met Mrs. Ayrton (Prof. Ayrton's second wife) until about 1895 when she began to contribute articles on the electric arc to The Electrician. Hertha Marks, of Jewish parentage, was one of those women who can pass the Cambridge Little Go after a few months' coaching instead of grinding for years over elementary classics like boys at public schools. She told me that she never regretted the time and trouble of acquiring a smattering of Greek, and agreed that the true object of a 'pass' examination is to discover the capability of acquiring knowledge quite apart from the value of that knowledge. From her youth she had many well-known literary friends.

Hertha Marks was placed equal to First Class in the Little Go, entered Girton, and sat for the Mathematical Tripos. Owing to inadequate coaching she elaborated some questions and left no time for others. It was said at Girton that one of her papers was of higher merit than that of the senior wrangler. But the result was that she took a Third Class. Silvanus Thompson relates in his Memoir of Lord Kelvin how he failed to be Senior Wrangler. It was a case of "bad generalship". In one paper he spent nearly all his time on a particular problem, lost time on it, and there was none left for other questions. Parkinson, the Senior Wrangler in 1845, had not only devoted himself to the art of answering examination questions but had acquired a very rapid handwriting.

Hertha Marks, who had already made the acquaintance of Prof. Ayrton, began to attend his lectures and laboratory in the autumn of 1884, and they were married in the spring of the following year.

During the Chicago Electrical Conference of 1893, a Negro servant lighted a fire with a paper written by Ayrton on "Variation of Potential Difference of the Electric Arc with Current, Size of Carbons, and Distance apart". No rough copy or even an abstract existed of the paper which had not been read in full, and had described an unfinished and inconclusive research. The experiments had been continued by Mrs. Ayrton who sent him her results twice a week by post.

She took up the research and he dropped it, not so much from disinclination to re-write the paper as from a staunch and largehearted wish that the credit for the work should be entirely her own: for Mrs. Ayrton had found that he had been at work on wrong lines. Her results were published in The Electrician and afterwards in book form in 1902. She and I were confrères in the study of the electric arc. I was already familiar with the conditions of her experiments, and we had many talks about them, both in my office as Editor of The Electrician, and at her Kensington Laboratory.

Ayrton had investigated the behaviour of the arc by slowly varying the current between limits for many hours at a time, in fact, often for the greater part of a day. The unhappy arc never had a chance of settling down to adjust itself to any particular current, and looped curves were the result. Mrs. Ayrton, by patient hand control, kept an arc under a steady current for more than an hour at a time, and arrived at a constant definite voltage, or potential difference, as Ayrton called it. She obtained consistent results, expressed them, first in plotted curves, and then as equations, and interpreted the work of previous investigators. Part of the work was on the conditions of the "hissing" arc. In my investigation on the rotating arc I had observed and avoided this stage, and she found that I appreciated her comparison of the handling of the arc to the driving of an obstinate animal after learning its caprices. The references in her book were most kind, and she presented some of my points more correctly and lucidly than I had done. In reply to my letter congratulating her on the publication of her book, and calling attention to a slip, she wrote, "Surely you know that it was a pure accident that your name came just where it did on p.454. I have far too great an admiration for your work on the light of the arc to couple your name with an error which, as you say, you share with so many others. Your experimental comparison of the light of the arc and the area of the crater visible, and your proof of the connection between the two, was a very valuable bit of work, [of] which, I am sure you will allow, I have made the fullest use, and I hope I have clearly expressed my great admiration of it as well… It is a great relief to be rid of the book at last — sometimes I used to think it never would be finished, and that when I died I would order the single word 'Arc' to be placed on my tombstone as a pathetic record of my sufferings". She little knew what sufferings some of her future work would bring.

Her paper on "The Hissing Arc" was read before the Institution of Electrical Engineers, of which she was elected a Member, in 1899. Blondel, who, as I have said, had worked at the silent arc, and had been troubled with the hissing, esteemed her work. I was at the Cape at the time, and started the first Local Centre of the Institution of Electrical Engineers at Cape Town. At a meeting of the Centre, at the South African College, I read her paper, reproduced several of her experiments, showed a lantern-slide portrait of their author, and attempted to describe her charming personality.

One of the conditions of the steady burning of the arc is the shape assumed by the ends of the carbons. A large square-ended carbon takes twenty minutes or more to settle down quietly after hissing, or rather roaring. She found that by properly shaping the ends, the arc was in good order a few seconds after recarboning. Acting on this, the Admiralty and War Office standardized the carbons used for searchlights. Crompton had long before used small negative carbons in order to avoid the shadow cast by them. The limit of their size was their fragility, and sometimes they were run nearly red hot. Mrs. Ayrton suggested that they should be coppered to carry the current, and this was adopted both by the Admiralty and by the War Office. Soon after her death in 1923 I spoke about her work to a Royal Engineer Officer. He was contemptuously incredulous that a woman could have had anything to do with search lights. He had probably never seen any other kinds of carbons. On the other hand C. H. Wordingham, Electrical Engineer-in-Chief of the Admiralty, became well acquainted with Mrs. Ayrton's work.

It was rather unfortunate that she gave the title "The Hissing of the Electric Arc" to her paper. Those of her audience who had anything to do with arcs knew that they sometimes hissed and gave reduced light, but few of them attached much importance to it. For the London Press the important thing was that a woman should address an audience of engineers. She was described as "a little dark-haired, dark-eyed lady, wearing pince-nez, who created a sensation which perhaps accounted in some degree for the unusually large attendance of young men members" and The Spectator observed with some superiority that it could understand the admiration excited by Mrs. Ayrton's lecture better than the surprise, and held that women have a distinct proclivity towards science and mathematics, finding them less exhausting than either history or mathematics".

These quotations from Evelyn Sharp's Memoir of Hertha Ayrton show the rubbish that we must expect from the Press when the ordinary journalist attempts to deal with science, while the Memoir is a striking instance of how a lay author, if the expression may be permitted, can write with accuracy and judgement on technical subjects.

She relates how Professor Ayrton had been requested by the Admiralty in 1903 to investigate the strange behaviour of electric arcs in powerful searchlights. "The four reports submitted to the Admiralty in 1904 - 8 were treated officially as his, although Mrs. Ayrton had assisted greatly in drawing up the three earlier reports, and the fourth was actually sent in over her own name because it embodied her unaided researches, and Professor Ayrton insisted that this should be made clear when it was forwarded to the Admiralty. The official mind, however, seemed unable to grasp that the work was not really done by the man who had been commissioned to do it and perhaps it is unreasonable to expect too much of the official mind … the fee was sent to her husband".

Carbon manufacturers with whom Mrs. Ayrton was in frequent communication recognized the importance of her improvements. She was consulted by a cinematography company who wished to avoid the sputtering and hissing of small arcs. The behaviour of cored positive carbons in which a pith of soft material burns away and helps to hollow out the crater was well known to her, and she had used cored negatives. But a negative, having no light-emitting crater, should be pointed. Sometimes carbon is deposited on it from the positive, giving rise to irregular "mushrooming". She made experiments to improve the pointing of the negative, and, contrary to all practice, she made soft negatives with hard cores and patented the invention shortly before the War. The result was a practical success, but arc lamps are now being superseded, not only in cinemas but in street lighting by improved incandescent lamps.

The wrinkles and ridges of sand on the sea shore attracted her attention and scientific inquisitiveness. They bear some resemblance to the ripples on the surface of a liquid, but are obviously of a different nature. A long and intricate research was undertaken, and in publishing the results she decided to call them ripples. Vaughan Cornish had carefully studied, described and photographed waves of water, sand and snow, but that was not enough for Mrs. Ayrton. Like young Clerk Maxwell, she wanted to know "What's the go 'o that?". Cornish had made world wide observations. For Mrs. Ayrton a couple of square yards on the Margate shore sufficed.

I have only a copy of the first of her Royal Society papers to refer to, and a few of her letters to me, and will not go into details, but I cannot forget the beautiful experiments which I have watched. After her husband's death she turned the large drawing-room of her house at 41 Norfolk Square into a laboratory, and equipped it with glass tanks. Some were a yard long and about ten inches wide and deep, filled with water, and a layer of sand about an inch deep on the bottom. They were mounted on rollers and moved to and fro to make waves swing backwards and forwards. Some were kept in motion by electric motors.

The movements of waves and eddies of perfect fluids under assumed or imaginary conditions have been a favourite theme for mathematicians. It is necessary in such treatment to get rid of some of the practical circumstances. In the teaching of elementary mechanics inextensible cords run over frictionless pullies, in thermodynamics the behaviour of impossible engines is considered, and in electrical engineering, ironless transformers at one time occupied much attention. The results of mathematical investigations of waves and vortices have been expressed in mathematical terms. Mathematics is a method of description, and mathematical analysis is generally a reduction to a statement in the form of an equation. In many cases this result cannot be expressed in the language of words. Lord Rayleigh and Prof. George Darwin had made such calculations, but they had done more, for they were both experimenters.

Mrs. Ayrton began with pure experimental observation, and made few if any assumptions. It is difficult to compress her work into a few words. She began by making a ridge across the bottom of a tank, and set the water swinging to and fro. Water passing over the ridge curled down and formed a roller eddy or cylindrical vortex near the ridge, scooping the sand up backwards against the ridge. "After a few more oscillations not only did these grow into very decided ridges, but each of them had, in its turn, originated fresh furrows and ridges, and soon the whole of the space between the original ridge and both ends of the trough was covered with the ripple-mark".

The movement of the sand which at her will formed itself into beautifully regular patterns was apparent enough, and the wave form of the surface of the water was obvious, but between them existed the internal motion of the water. One of the ways in which she traced this was to put a morsel of permananate of potash on the edge of the ridge. The passing water swept a thin stream of coloured fluid and curled at first down, then backwards, and then upwards forming a complete spiral. In some experiments, in order to separate reciprocating movement from flow, she interposed exceedingly thin films of indiarubber. She eventually hit on the employment of finely powdered aluminum. This exhibited with perfect clearness the beautiful sight of a dance of silvery ribbons tracing out the eddies which she created. Needless to say, Lord Rayleigh fully appreciated the translation of his mathematics into this graceful form. He was that kind of man. George Darwin had made calculations in 1884 as well as experiments, and was not quite satisfied on some points, but welcomed her work. And there were other mathematicians.

In her research on the electric arc she had carried all before her, and produced the standard book on the subject and she made herself mistress of sand ripples. As I have said, mathematicians had busied themselves with theoretical waves and vortices. I do not know if Mrs. Ayrton found that her practical observations conflicted with their rigorous results probably not. When they were offered to the Royal Society, criticisms were raised, and she was sensitive about them, for there was an apparent conflict. Her paper was rejected by the referee but Lord Rayleigh entered the lists, championed her cause, her paper was accepted, and the Hughes gold medal was awarded to her for this and her work on the electric arc. They accepted several other papers from her.

She met with a very different reception in Paris. Not content to demonstrate the formation of sand ripples, she investigated the movements of water, and contributed to the Société Francaise de Physique a paper on the formation of sand ripples and on the internal movements of water. To write the paper in French and fluently to deliver it in that language was no difficulty, nor was the transport of the glass tanks and other apparatus and the performance of the experiments a task beyond her powers, but a long paper on a very different subject was on the programme, and she was nearly crowded out. Such experiments as time permitted went off well, her interpretations were received and cordially appreciated, and the President said that in this race between experimental and theoretical science theory had for the present been overtaken, even existing mathematics were not able to deal with the subject, which remained to be explained by les mathématiques de l'avenir.

Her work on the electric arc aimed and arrived at practical results her investigation of the production of sand ripples may be said to have been the outcome of scientific inquisitiveness but she turned it to an application of great importance at that time, in the War. Those who saw her experiments at home or the results at the front cannot forget them, but few of the younger generation have heard of them, and that is why, admiring her work as I do, I will put my recollections on record. Early in 1915 the Germans with fiendish brutality began to use poison gas. She thought that eddies of air might be used to repel gas attacks.

Air is a very different fluid from water. The one has, in the scientific sense, low elasticity, its easy compression is accompanied by heating, it is light and almost impalpable the other is almost incompressible, capable of massive motion and more obvious internal and skin friction. To anyone else the idea was so wild as to be absurd. But she was so thoroughly acquainted with her subject, and had such a sound knowledge of physics, that she saw that in dealing with fluids the question of scale was of little importance. To imitate a gas cloud she used the smoke of brown paper, but this while warm tended to rise above her laboratory battle field (the glass tanks and sand and water had been cleared away). Cooling chambers and pipes were devised and made, and smoke poured out and rolled along the floor. A few flaps with a card on a matchbox serving as the parapet of a trench drove it back.

I did not see the experiments until they had developed, and model "dug-outs" and "pill-boxes" had been built. These could be cleared of smoke with a few flaps of a tiny square paddle or fan. The fan with a flexible blade rather more than a square foot in size was mounted on a T-shaped handle. When smacked on the ground facing the on-coming gas, the cross bar of the handle hit the ground first, the blade flattened out, and sent a puff of air. The friction of the ground retarded the lower part of the puff, which became a vortex cylinder. When smoke rings are formed at the end of a gun, or the funnel of a locomotive, or the lips of a smoker, the central part of the puff advances faster than the edges, and so a ring is formed revolving on itself. Discussing this with Mrs. Ayrton, I asked where the ends of the vortex cylinder were, for I had the impression that a vortex ring must be continuous and cannot be cut. I cannot remember her reply, but it may have been that the under surface of the blade retards the air, and forms an upper vortex cylinder rotating in the opposite direction. But whether the two join to form a ring, I cannot say. An ordinary smoke ring increases in size as it travels, and induces a blast of air to pass through it. It was this that drove the gas back. Of Mrs. Ayrton's originality, perseverance and enthusiasm I was aware, but I found her greatly depressed, and showing a sensitiveness of disposition that was new to me. She could stand up to academical mathematicians, but now she was up against officialism. I must confess that the toy-like models in her laboratory-drawing room seemed a long way from the battlefield. So far as experiments went they were convincing when she showed them to me, and many who saw them, including intelligent soldiers, were impressed. But those who did not or would not come, and those who refused to give the invention a trial, the exasperating officials who would not listen to anything new because they shirked the responsibility of giving a decision, were obstacles with which she has not reckoned and did not know how to deal. The three years spent in brown paper smoke were not all concerned with research, that was soon done her labour was to convince others.

I had nearly twenty years of government officialism, and already, during the war, something of the military variety. We discussed in confidence, without going into psychological analysis, the strange constitution of the official mind. I could only sympathize with her and show her that she was not the only special victim of obdurate nonchalance of those who were trained to be afraid of considering a thing on its merits, and so dutiful in clinging to a policy.

In spite of the disheartening opposition commonly shown to inventors at this time, several supplies of gas-repelling fans were sent to the front. These were not intended to be merely waved about, and perhaps the name "fan" was unfortunate. The inventor almost accidentally, perhaps intuitively, acquired the knack of using it in the best way, and this needed instruction. One of her assistants from the Central College went out and demonstrated the proper use of the fans, and a few officers were convinced of their value. If the reports which she showed me had been published, they must have come into general use, but the safest way to deal with a report is to consider it as confidential, and to put it away safely in a pigeon hole.

Discouraged and almost in despair after trying for two years to gain the attention of the War Office, she asked me to help her with the Admiralty. Thirty years had passed since I had dealings with that Service. I knew very few officers: Bacon had been a contributor to The Electrician, but he was at sea, and I recommended C. H. Wordingham, Electrical Engineer in-Chief of the Admiralty, with whom I was well acquainted. I have a letter from him dated Nov. 21, 1917, thanking me for the introduction and saying that he was going to see a demonstration. He was a practical engineer and was convinced on the spot, and thought that the use of such fans would be valuable for emergency ventilation of ships.

It must be remembered that when poison gas was first used in war, chlorine, a heavy gas, was blown across by the wind. The Ayrton fan was quite capable of rolling it back in the open, and, unexpectedly, even I think by Mrs. Ayrton, of clearing dugouts into which gas had fallen.

The practical successes of her sand ripple and of her fan experiments led to further researches in hydrodynamics. She read a paper before the Royal Society on "Local Difference of Pressure near an Obstacle in Oscillation in Water", using a manometer designed and made by her, and wrote another on the effect of skin friction on vortices. She discussed some of this work with me, and I could admire her skill in constructing the apparatus, and could follow the experimental work, but her mathematical discussion which always followed the observational part was beyond me.

To add to her troubles it was bitter for her to find that her active sympathy with the women's suffrage movement was impairing her scientific work and prejudicing her position. I think she never spoke to me of this until the last time that I saw her, when my wife and I visited her. Barbara Gould, her daughter, was present, and 1 learned what strong and extreme views they held on political questions. It was perhaps the only time, except once when I visited her and her husband during his last illness at Little Badow near Chelmsford, that we did not converse on scientific matters on which we could see eye to eye. She died in August 1923.

Hertha Ayrton was one of the last of the workers in physical science to start from experimental observation, to design and construct the apparatus in the laboratory, to carry through the research almost single handed, to discuss in mathematical language the process and the result, and to leave traces of the personality of the work in the method employed. Nearly all later work has been done with complicated commercial instruments in well-equipped laboratories, and is carried on by group or team-work, often under a director.


Spotlight on Women in Electrical Engineering History: Hertha Ayrton

The Hughes Medal, a prestigious honor awarded by the Royal Society of London to recognize original scientific discoveries, “particularly [in] electricity and magnetism or their applications”, has been handed out to pioneers in the field of electrical sciences for almost 115 years. In 1906, the prize went to a 52-year-old scientist and electrical engineer for her “experimental investigations on the electric arc.” That scientist was Hertha Marks Ayrton. During the century-long history of the Hughes Medal, only two women have ever been recipients of the award. Hertha Ayrton was the first.

In the late 1800’s, carbon arc lamps were commonly used for lighting in commercial and industrial settings, but arc lamps had serious drawbacks. Their illumination was inconsistent. They often hissed and sputtered, and changed color. Carbon arc lamps were also used for searchlights, where their continuously varying arc lengths required adjustments of the searchlight’s mirror, creating a nuisance for the operator. Ayrton was determined to understand why arc lamps were plagued by these issues. In 1893 she began conducting experiments on the electric arc. She discovered that the “hissing” produced by the arc is actually due to oxygen contacting the lamp’s carbon rods, and not due to evaporation, as was previously thought. She published her findings in The Electrician in 1895, and four years later she was invited to read her paper, “The Hissing of the Electric Arc”, aloud before the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE, now known as the Institution of Engineering and Technology.) Ayrton was the first woman to ever read her own paper aloud to the IEE, and she became the first woman elected to their membership. In 1902, she compiled her research into a book, The Electric Arc.

Hertha Ayrton was no stranger to inequity in the male-dominated world of the sciences. In 1902, she was nominated to be a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, but she was ultimately denied the fellowship due to the Royal Society’s charter that prevented married women from becoming Fellows. Much like her close friend, Marie Curie, Ayrton dealt with detractors who claimed that her success was largely due to her husband, English Physicist and Engineer William Edward Ayrton. “Errors are notoriously hard to kill,” wrote Hertha, “But an error that ascribes to a man what was actually the work of a woman has more lives than a cat.”

From the lowly, hissing arc of a carbon arc lamp, to the incredibly powerful destructive force of an arc flash, the electrical arc has been a subject of study and research for electrical engineers for over 200 years. The team at PowerStudies, Inc. is grateful for the historical contributions of all the men and women who have worked tirelessly to shed light on the behavior of the electrical arc.


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